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The fundamental system of social organization - a proposal for the effective human society

  Human society, like the societies formed by other beings, is a living system, carrying the characteristics of life.  Complex living system...

 Human society, like the societies formed by other beings, is a living system, carrying the characteristics of life. Complex living systems are characterized by a system-level organization based on the interaction between organization-building individual units bearing specific levels of autonomies.

A living organism is affected by the environment and is regulated by natural laws. The fundamentals of the functions of Earthly living systems are existence based on evolution, and operation by energy consumption. Human societies also behave as living systems, so the evolutionary existence, which is driven by energy consumption also applies to the functioning of human societies.

Of course, society does not evolve biologically. Social evolution takes place through the ways and forms of habits and behavior.

The evolution of society appears on two levels. As society adapts to the environment, evolutionary effects prevail at the level of the individuals building up society, and evolutionary effects prevail at the level of society as a whole also. Evolutionary influences within a society affect the existence of the society-building individuals, and evolutionary influences also affect the existence of society.

The operation of evolutionary mechanisms in society makes society adaptable to the changing environment and ensures the survival of society while subordinating the existence of the members of society to the interests of society.

In an ant colony, this subordination is natural, and it is also natural that in the case of multicellular organisms, the existence of the cells that build up the organism are subordinated to the interest of the organism.

However, human society is special among living organisms, unique, because the cells of society have more or less retained independent individuality. The individuals that build up society, people, are independent, self-willed, intentional, self-aware, thinking, intelligent units of society.

This specialty of human society also leads to advantages and disadvantages in the operation of society. The advantage is that intelligent individuals, the building blocks of society, can function more effectively. The disadvantage is that the persons bearing their own will not necessarily serve the interests of society.

We can define effective human society if society is able to utilize the intelligence of the individuals who build up society optimally for the benefit of society.

The natural evolutionary mechanisms affecting human society often have personal consequences for the individuals who build up the society, which can be conflicting to the freely behaving will of the individual and hence unacceptable to the person, thereby creating tensions in society. As a result, the personal will of specific people and groups can significantly, sometimes decisively influence, modify self-sustained, generic, natural social progress, and create processes that are resistant to natural evolution, opposed to, or reduce the effectiveness of society's natural adaptation.

All the difficulties and problems of human society originated from the fact that the existence of the individuals who build up society is not subordinated in a natural, self-evident, generic way to the existence of society. Different societal governance models and methods have been developed to solve this problem.

The purpose of social governance in the life of society is the formation of an efficient society, the coordination of natural evolutionary mechanisms with the existence of the individuals who build up society and are guided by their own will. The governance of society should and must harmonize antagonistic contradictions and conflicting interests.

Recognizing the relationship and interest between individuals and society, there have been conscious attempts to create functioning social governance models. The latest attempt to create a social governance model is the idea of communism, which was a complete failure because the societal processes of communism were not guided by generic, natural effects, but by subjective rules that did not take into account the deterministic effects of natural laws. Communism very quickly converted itself to an unsustainable, non-adaptable, unable to evolve societal order to serve personal, individual interests. As a result, instead of forming an effective and successful relationship in society and between the individuals, a rigid, oppressive, inefficient, and doomed society has emerged.

In the case of human societies, the most successful and thus the most widespread societal model is capitalism, a social organizational system, that in case by case somewhat differently, but generally based on money as the form of driving energy, the general resource of the society. Capitalism forms and represents a societal system, which is more permissive of natural evolutionary constraints.

The success of capitalism is based on the operation according to natural laws, allowing natural, generic processes. Money as a resource of energy and the functioning of natural evolutionary mechanisms create a self-regulatory and self-sustaining society based on generic processes. Capitalism can be successful because the determining mechanisms of the operation of societal processes are regulations that allow natural evolutionary processes instead of subjective motivations and personal intent ignoring the generic mechanisms of nature. The social model of capitalism’s success is based on its natural, generic system of regulation allowing natural evolution, which is driven by money as the form of energy.

In the capitalist social model, money appears as the success of the individuals, appears as self-assertion, the social power of the individual who has money, and thus money becomes the energy that operates society.

The basic rule of evolution is the out-selection of individuals that fail to successfully function under the apparent circumstances. However, this evolutionary mechanism, which is necessary for the successful survival of a living organization, leads to tensions in the human society composed of individuals having self-consciousness and own will, but functioning under generic evolution. The basic rule of operation of evolution, natural selection, is fundamentally unacceptable to the people who build up society, and it is also the source of the tensions of classical (wild) capitalist society.

In a modern society, which is based on modern moral foundations and relies on common responsibility and commitment, the evolutionary mechanism of classical capitalism that also prevails on individuals (the success of a society is the consequence of the success of individuals, and those who are individually less successful are less valuable members of society) leads to unnatural processes in society. The artificial restriction of natural evolutionary selection created by man-made, non-generic processes, such as morality preserves social inequalities and differences in capitalist society. The increase in social disparities causes an increase in social tensions and can also lead to the disintegration of capitalist society.

To reduce these tensions, social capitalist governance models have emerged that retain the role of money as the resource of operating energy but consciously regulate the selection mechanisms of natural evolution through non-generic processes, thereby artificially mitigating the excessive increase in differences between individuals, or just creating acceptable living standards for all members.

It should be noted that the attempt of the unconditional individual income, which has recently arisen in several societies and has resulted in serious social debates, also serves this purpose.

However, social capitalism preserves and introduces new non-generic processes into the system, thereby maintains elements that reduce the efficiency of natural evolution, and require continuous, conscious management that poses risks and can lead to errors.

Despite the difficulties of free, unrestricted (individualist) capitalism based on the success of the individuals, it bears the advantage that its basic processes are generic, natural processes, and the system of governance of society is based on evolution, a generic law of nature. Money-based individual success, the natural evolutionary selection based on money, results in the successful adaptation of society to changes in the environment. Capitalist society is well able to adapt to changes in the social environment, so it has a good ability to survive.

However, the organization-level survival of living systems and their adaptation to the environment can be realized in another way, and nature shows countless examples of this other method. In fact, apart from human societies, all of the other complex natural living systems are based on the organization of non-individualistic members of society. In classical complex living systems, the individual units who build up the system abandon independence and operate in a way that is beneficial to the interests of the system as a whole. Since most of the natural complex living systems follow this strategy, we can say that it is the natural way to operate successfully. The precondition of this kind of organization, however, is the abandonment of individual intention, free will, individual interest in part or in full.

We can also see examples of such attempts to manage human society. The current Chinese governance model contains similar elements. In the Chinese model, the interest of the individual, and thus the personal free will is subordinated to the interests of the community. This model is the natural way for complex living systems to function.

However, in the case of natural living systems - which are based on generic processes -, their common interest is determined by natural, external factors and objectives, generic circumstances. The natural process of evolution is based on random changes and the suitability of the changed system in the environment. In human societies, we do not consider random, probationary-type, aimless changes as good solutions for societal processes, because it is slow, assumes a large number of wastable organizations, and can only function effectively in the long run. In the case of human societies - which are built up by abandoning individuals’ interests -, intentional, conscious management is necessary, which can be effective, but at the same time risky, and can lead to failure.

In the Chinese-type social model, the selection of individuals is not based on the success of the individual but based on the perceived or actual community interest of that person. However, if the specification of community interest is not the result of a natural, generic process but a consequence of so-called inner thinking, then such a society is only able to survive, only able to successfully adapt to a changing environment as long as internal thinking correctly defines real community interest. Such a society is not governed by natural, generic processes, so its survival carries significant risks.

In nature, we cannot find examples of complex societies where self-conscious individuals build up society and operate on the basis of internal centralized decision making, except in human societies, but even in that case, the success of the operation is in doubt.

The human body seems to be like that, but in fact, the brain has a very limited and only indirect effect on the functioning of individual cells, and individual cells that make up the human body do not have their own self-awareness either.

However, as it can be seen, the general basis for the operation of complex living systems is the realization of the common interest and the harmonization of the individual interest with the common interest. The functioning of an effective society must be realized on this basis as well.

Is it possible to create a societal system that is functioning under natural law, apply evolutionary processes, based on energy consumption, and can integrate the independent, free will of the individuals building up the system in a generic, natural way? Is there a method of social governance that can govern society as a unified living system, effective in adapting to environmental changes, and based on equal access to individual success on a non-differentiating footing? Is there a model of social governance that is able to use free will and all the potential abilities of the individuals who build up the society generically, naturally, and without tensions to serve the community’s interest? Can an effective human society be created?

That is, how a knowledge-based society can be, and how a knowledge-based society could function.

Proposal to a knowledge-based, hence effective societal model

The role of individual knowledge in the functioning of society is a well-known factor. The knowledge of the individuals who build up society has always played a significant role in the life and successful functioning of human society. Old wisdom is that knowledge is power. Knowledge is the tool of individual empowerment, the tool of individual success.

Today’s society also seems knowledge-based. A society, which is based on technology, requires the continuous acquisition of new knowledge, so it seems as if the society is based on knowledge. However, even in today’s technological-scientific society, knowledge does not play a governing role, and not the most determinant factor in society’s evolutionary mechanisms, but it is an indirect, money-based tool for individual success and the success of society.

Currently, in our society, money regulates knowledge, too. Money also has the role of creating tension in the field of knowledge artificially maintaining and increasing difference. The person who has more money can gain more knowledge, he who has gained more knowledge can earn more money. In a money-based society, knowledge works and contributes - through money - to the growth of societal inequalities.

By consciously recognizing or instinctively applying, some societies and countries use rules to help and support their members' access to knowledge. For example, state scholarship programs are set up for the financially deprived, and disadvantaged people are positively discriminated against. These societies can function more successfully, but these methods also do not radically change the established role of money and the relationship between money and knowledge is the same in society.

In a knowledge-based society, knowledge plays a fundamental role, and money works in fundamentally different ways.

A knowledge-based society uses and applies the level of knowledge and skills of the individuals who build up society in a generic, natural way in order to operate society on an evolutionary basis. In a knowledge-based society, the energy that drives societal evolution is not money, but the level of acquired knowledge. In a knowledge-based society, money retains its original function as a universal medium of exchange and loses the character of energy. In a knowledge-based society, money still exists, but it becomes knowledge-based. In a knowledge-based society, the relationship between money and knowledge is reversed compared to a money-based society.

Why is it good if knowledge is the energy of evolution? How does a knowledge-based society work?

The evolution of society as a living system means the adaptation of society to the changing environment. The environment affects the living system, and the living system uses some kind of response to try to adapt to the changed conditions, i.e., it changes. The change involves extra energy consumption. A living system that has more usable energy is better suited for evolutionary adaptation.

The change of the environment appears to be a problem for the living system, so adaptation is also a problem-solving process. Adaptation comes as a solution to a problem. A society is more successful in the evolutionary adaptation that is better suited to problem-solving, more advanced for resolving problems.

Humans are special building units of society as a living system because humans are inherently intelligent, fundamentally problem-solving beings. Our brains evolved to solve problems and evolved during problem-solving. Our brain, along with the knowledge we have acquired, is an effective tool in solving problems.

How does knowledge become the energy that drives the evolution of society? Evolution is the process of problem-solving. And the most effective way to solve problems is through knowledge. The ability to solve problems is directly proportional to the amount of possessed knowledge.

Knowledge is created in people by acquired information and thinking. Acquiring knowledge is a complex, intricate process, however, the human brain is the perfect tool for this process. If we let it happen. And just need to let it happen. The individuals who build society as a living system, humans are suitable for acquiring knowledge.

In the case of human society, if we use knowledge as the energy of societal evolution, and use it for the internal evolution of society, the evolution of the building blocks of society as well, so if the evolutionary selection is based on the acquired knowledge, then we optimized the efficiency of the evolution of society as a system, and we can operate the adaptation of society to the environment in the most efficient way.

In a knowledge-based society, knowledge becomes the energy that drives evolution, and at the same time, the basis and selection mechanism of evolution within society is based on the acquired knowledge. In a knowledge-based society, the basis of individual success is the acquired knowledge.

The way to create a knowledge-based human society is to break down all barriers and regulations that hinder access to information, thus limiting the acquisition of knowledge. In a knowledge-based society, everyone has free, unrestricted, and equal access to information and learning. A knowledge-based society is an effective society.

In addition to its obvious and fundamental role in the evolution of human society, information and knowledge have another secondary positive property that makes it particularly suitable for the role of energy that drives evolution, even more suitable than money. This feature is the unlimited scalability. If we make knowledge the energy of evolution, the energy that drives evolution — the information-based knowledge — can be increased indefinitely and can be available in unlimited magnitude without negative consequences.

If money is the energy that drives evolution, the above finding does not hold. Money, given the role of a medium of exchange, can only be available to a limited extent. Money used as an exchange instrument issued without collateral security results in inflation and the devaluation of social goods. If, on the other hand, we use money as the energy of the evolution in the life of society, it is better to have as much money as possible available to the members of society. It is from this context that richer societies are more successful in adapting to change.

In the event of a social evolutionary constraint, in a case of social crisis, increasing money - in the operation of a money-based society - as a new, freely available energy helps the society to adapt to the changing environment. Consciously or unconsciously recognizing the energy nature of money in the adaptation of capitalist society, attempts have recently been made to use unlimited money in resolving societal crises. Understanding the role of money in the evolution of society, the benefits of unlimited money are obvious. However, money also has a role to play in the life of society as a universal medium of exchange, so the uncovered production of money also has obvious disadvantages.

However, in contrast to the role of money in a money-based society with the knowledge in a knowledge-based society, information can be increased and multiplied indefinitely without adverse side effects, without entailing a devaluation of information or the devaluation of the value of knowledge. And the increase in knowledge created by information increases the adaptability of the individual and society as well. Information-based knowledge is an ideal form of energy that drives societal evolution.

Information that can be increased indefinitely and available without restriction results in unlimited growing of knowledge, that provides unlimited energy and increases the efficiency of society’s evolutionary processes through increased efficiency in problem-solving.

The characteristic and essential feature of a knowledge-based society is that all information and materials, tools, and activities related to the acquisition of knowledge are freely available to members of society. Obviously, their availability to society involves the usage of resources. In a knowledge-based society, members of society have to bear this cost, but this sacrifice is negligible compared to the social benefits.

Moreover, free access to information and knowledge creates a knowledge-based society. In a knowledge-based society, the freely and unrestrictedly available information effectively generates and creates knowledge in the intelligent individuals that build up society.

A knowledge-based society enables knowledge-based society management. The knowledge-based society does not have specific, universally valid operating rules, yet, a generally applicable societal governance model - detailed in a previous thought - can be applied to the knowledge-based society. The governance of the knowledge-based society is characterized by continuous adaptation to the changing environment, and thus by continuous evolution in the field of governance rules as well. However, adaptation, the solution of problems, takes place directly, using knowledge as problem-solving energy, and not indirectly, as in the case of a money-based society.

Even in the case of a knowledge-based society, the necessary process of societal evolution prevails, the evolution of the individuals that build up society continues. Individuals who have greater knowledge - because of their personal abilities or other circumstances - have more opportunities to assert themselves through their greater knowledge, and thus through more money gained.

In a knowledge-based society, evolution at the level of individuals is obviously not biological. In a knowledge-based society, the evolutionary advantage cannot be inherited personally, as it is the case in a money-based society. In a money-based society, the material wealth acquired as a result of ability may also be passed on to persons who are unfit and do not have the qualities of evolutionary advantage that result in the further acquisition of money. A money-based society is not suited to the goal of the evolution regarding individuals.

In a knowledge-based society, the evolution of the individuals that build up society is generic. Knowledge, the evolutionary advantage, cannot be inherited either biologically or on the basis of social rules (as in the case of money). Knowledge must be acquired by everyone, personally. In a knowledge-based society, the appropriately suitable individuals will generally prevail. The differentiating ability cannot (or rather should not) be inherited biologically, but it assuredly can be inherited socially, through family and/or societal care. Yet, preference is non-discriminatory and preserves even require and supports the diversity of individuals in society. A knowledge-based society is built on biological diversity and diversification, as it is never possible to know in advance which individual in society will be better suited to acquire knowledge.

In a knowledge-based society, the procedure of how knowledge is acquired and the advantage of having knowledge is a constant motivation for members of society, and free access to information ensures equal competition. In a knowledge-based society, the level of acquired knowledge creates a natural, generic path, a prevailing, i.e. evolutionary advantage among individuals, and not function the way by predetermined conditions, like by the formation of castes.

However, the functioning of a knowledge-based society can also be dangerous. The biggest danger of a knowledge-based society is when the role of money in society regains its energy character. A knowledge-based society can survive as long as it can prevent this.

An additional danger is the development of cognitive abilities on a biological basis. However, the obvious link between cognitive traits and the structure of biological hereditary material (DNA) is so distant and indirect that the biological enhancement of members of the knowledge-based society is unpredictable, and a knowledge-based society is certainly capable to consider the risks and societal dangers of assessing increased cognitive abilities through the biological selection. The development and application of Artificial Intelligence are likely to pre-empt the opportunities and level of the biological development of human cognitive abilities.

A knowledge-based society is an effective society because it enables the evolution of society, as well as the evolution of the society creating individuals by utilizing optimal and maximal use of the abilities of the building blocks of the society, the people. There is no other more efficient human societal model exist than the knowledge-based society.

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